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E-Cigarettes Are Expanding Tobacco Product Use Among Youth

Parent and grandparent alert! E-cigarettes, thought by some to be responsible for a decline in youth cigarette smoking, are actually attracting a new population of adolescents who might not otherwise have smoked tobacco products. That is the finding of a University of Californina, San Francisco study published online January 23, 2017 in Pediatrics as well as the February print issue of the journal.

A release from the university reports that in the first national analysis of the impact of e-cigarettes on trends in youth smoking in the United States, UCSF researchers did not find evidence that e-cigarettes have caused youth smoking to decline. In fact, combined e-cigarette and cigarette use among adolescents in 2014 was higher than total cigarette use in 2009, according to the study.

The authors concluded that the low-risk youth in the study, who went on to smoke regular cigarettes, may not have used nicotine at all if e-cigarettes did not exist.

The release quotes lead author Lauren Dutra, a former postdoctoral fellow at the UCSF Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education and current social scientist at RTI International, a not-for-profit research organization based in North Carolina, as saying, “We didn’t find any evidence that e-cigarettes are causing youth smoking to decline. While some of the kids using e-cigarettes were also smoking cigarettes, we found that kids who were at low risk of starting nicotine with cigarettes were using e-cigarettes. Recent declines in youth smoking are likely due to tobacco control efforts, not to e-cigarettes.”

The national analysis builds on several previous studies that have reported that adolescents who start with e-cigarettes are more likely to subsequently smoke traditional cigarettes.

In August 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration restricted e-cigarette purchases to adults ages 18 and older (California set the age to 21). The FDA also will require a warning label on e-cigarettes, starting August 2018, regarding the addictive nature of nicotine. However, the FDA’s ruling does not regulate advertising or flavors, and e-cigarettes continue to be sold in flavors that appeal to youth.

In the new UCSF study, the researchers examined survey data from more than 140,000 middle and high school students who completed the CDC’s National Youth Tobacco Survey between 2004 and 2014.

The authors found that cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents declined during that decade, but did not decline faster after the advent of e-cigarettes in the U.S. between 2007 and 2009.