The Plus Side of Population Aging
Here at ThirdAge, we’re delighted to spread some good news about the the fact that the population in the U.S. and other developed countries is increasingly older than in the past. Most academic discussions of this trend so far have focused on the potential problems it creates, including challenges to pension systems, economic growth, and healthcare costs.
However, according to a study done at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and published on September 24th 2014 in the journal PLoS ONE, population aging and the compositional change that go along with it such as increasing education levels may turn out to have many positive impacts for society.
A release from the institute quotes IIASA researcher Elke Loichinger, who wrote the article in collaboration with researchers from the Max Planck Institute in Rostock, Germany, and the University of Washington, as saying, “In order to give a more complete picture of population aging, it is necessary to include both positive and negative effects of population aging.”
The researchers chose to use Germany as a case study because the country is at an advanced stage of the demographic transition, with a current fertility rate of around 1.4 and the second oldest average population in the world (median age 44.3 years). They identified five areas in which population aging could bring net benefits, when considered in combination with other demographic factors:
• Increased productivity: While population aging will likely lead to a decline in the labor force, expected increases in workers’ education levels can partly compensate for this decline through higher productivity.
• Aging could be good for the environment: Changes in the age structure and a declining population size are associated with reduced consumption of energy-intensive goods and lower carbon dioxide emissions.
• Sharing wealth with the younger generations: As life expectancy increases, people would inherit, on average, at older ages and potentially use some of the inheritance to either fund their retirement or help their children financially as they become adults. Moreover, as families have fewer children, inheritance will be split between fewer people, so that, all else being constant, individuals would receive more on average.
• Health: As people live longer, they also stay healthier longer. The results project that the average German man in 2050 will spend 80% of his lifetime in good health, compared to 63% today.
• Quality of life: The study suggests that the relationship between leisure, work, and housework will change in the future, with leisure time increasing on average.