The Aging Population is Growing the Ranks of Cancer Survivors
Improved cancer detection and treatment efforts, combined with demographic trends, are creating larger numbers of older cancer survivors who are likely to have other health conditions that impact care and well-being. The study by Shirley M. Bluethmann, PhD, MPH, a cancer prevention fellow at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, appeared in July 2016 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.
A release from the association explained that researchers have been anticipating a growing number of older Americans, sometimes referred to as a “silver tsunami.” Meanwhile, advances in cancer detection and treatment mean that more people are surviving cancer. “Understanding the impact of a graying nation on cancer prevalence is critical in informing efforts to design and implement quality cancer care for this population,” said the study’s lead author,” Bluethmann said.
Bluethmann and colleagues based their study on incidence and survival data from 1975-2012, obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. They projected U.S. cancer prevalence from 2016 to 2040 by using U.S. Census Bureau data, and applying the Prevalence Incidence Approach Model. SEER data linked with Medicare claims were used to estimate comorbidities commonly experienced in older adults, including health conditions such as heart disease, lung disease, or diabetes. The study showed:
- In 2016, there are approximately 15.5 million cancer survivors in the United States, and 62 percent of that group is 65 or older. By 2040, the study projects, there will be 26.1 million cancer survivors, and 73 percent of them will be 65 or older.
- The oldest age groups will come to represent a larger proportion of the population of cancer survivors. In 2040, survivors ages 65-74 will account for 24 percent of all survivors, those 75-84 will account for 31 percent of all survivors, and those 85 and older will represent 18 percent of all survivors. Compared with the prevalence estimates for 1975, the projected prevalence estimates in 2040 show a 6-fold increase for those 65-74 years, a 10-fold increase for those 75-84 years, and a 17-fold increase for those 85 years and older.
- Overall current cancer prevalence is similar between men and women of all ages. However, in older age groups, the disease is more prevalent among men. In the 65-69 age group, 14 percent of men and 12 percent of women have been diagnosed with cancer. The gap widens consistently as people age, and in the oldest group, age 90 and up, 37 percent of men and 25 percent of women have been diagnosed with cancer. Bluethmann said this gap is most likely related to higher numbers of prostate cancer survivors, which is typically diagnosed in men at older ages.